According to the main criteria of the roller bearing capacity, the material used to make the roller bearing should have a certain load-roller bearing capacity, thermal conductivity with low friction coefficient, smooth surface, anti-wear, anti-fatigue and anti-corrosion. No single material can fully meet all requirements, which is why compromise is often used in most designs.
The following briefly introduces the performance and application of several roller bearing materials.
Roller bearing alloy
Roller bearing alloys (Babbitt alloy) are widely used in roller bearing making. They usually come in two types: tin-based roller bearing alloys and lead-based roller bearing alloys. They have the characteristics of fast running-in and can easily make the surface very smooth. They are usually attached to the steel roller bearing base as a roller bearing bush. Babbitt alloy roller bearings have good adaptability and have automatic adjustment characteristics for small misalignment or defective shafts. Because the appropriate amount of dust or foreign matter entering the lubricant can be absorbed by this soft material to prevent the shaft from being damaged by adhesion, this embedding property makes them an excellent roller bearing material. The journal material can be mild steel, hard steel or cast iron.
Bronze roller bearings are suitable for low-speed and heavy-duty applications with good shaft and roller bearing alignment. They can be made of a variety of alloy components to obtain a variety of different physical properties.
The roller bearing capacity of this kind of roller bearing is higher than that of roller bearing alloy, and its adaptability is poor, so it is used on occasions with good shaft rigidity and good centering.
Cast iron-roller bearing materials are widely used on occasions with less stringent requirements. The hardness of the journal must be higher than the hardness of the roller bearing bush. The work surface should be carefully run in with a mixture of graphite and oil. It is required that the journal and the roller bearing must be well aligned.
Porous roller bearing
First, the metal powder is sintered and then immersed in oil to produce so-called "self-lubricating" or "porous" roller bearings. Bronze of various compositions is widely used in porous roller bearings, and iron is rarely used. Because porous roller bearings have self-lubricating properties, they are mainly used in situations where it is difficult or impossible to obtain reliable lubrication when using general lubrication methods.
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